Other Products:

Brewing Malts

Distilling Malts

 

 

Caramelised Malt Production

 

Caramalt / Carastan / Crystal / Caramel Malts

Caramalt

 

Crystal Malt

These are manufactured by Bairds Malt at the Witham plant from green malt in small batches at a time (1.5 - 2 tonnes).

The green malt is well modified but not over modified, and should be of a barley variety that does not lose its husk easily - it is essential to avoid localised charring on the surface of the grain.

The charge of green malt is fed into a rotating metal roasting cylinder, which is heated so that the temperature of the green malt is about 55 - 65°C. At this temperature each individual grain is "mashed", i.e. amylolysis and proteolysis takes place within each individual grain, yielding a complex mixture of simple and polymeric sugars and amino acids and peptides. Water is then removed from the grain and the product temperature raised to 120° - 160°C. At this temperature the classic reactions of the non-enzymic browning process take place to form firstly glycosylamines and then ketosamines and eventually furan and pyran type heterocyclic oxygen compounds. By varying the time and temperature of the various stages a different colour range is produced.

Caramalts are used to give colour and flavour to pale Lager beers but should be used with care to avoid making the beer too dark or giving it too cloying a flavour. They also change the oxidation - reduction state of a beer, and can therefore improve the stability of a beer by preventing the formation of oxidised (cardboard) flavours.

Colour ranges currently available are:

IOB
EBC
ASBC
15 - 20
20 - 25
10 - 13
20 - 30
25 - 35
13 - 17
50 - 70
60 - 80
30 - 37


Crystal or Caramel malts have a distinctive toffee flavour, which becomes more intense as colour is increased, and at the higher end of the colour range burnt or roasted malt flavours may begin to appear. Traditionally in the UK, Crystal malt of colour 70 -80 °ASBC has been used at about 5% of the grist to give the characteristic colour and flavour of UK Bitters and Pale Ales. Adjustment of the amount and/or colour of the Crystal malt may brew some very distinctive beers, but this may require some careful experimentation. Crystal malts have been used in the brewing of Lager beers, but considerable care is required to ensure that whilst a distinctive flavour is achieved, the crystal flavour and colour does not become too dominant. In all beers they can help prevent the formation of oxidised (cardboard) flavours.

Colour ranges currently available are:

IOB
EBC
ASBC
90 - 100
100 - 120
50 - 60
110 - 130
120 - 140
60 - 70
130 - 150
140 - 160
70 - 80
170 - 210
190 - 230
95 - 115
250 - 320
280 - 350
135 - 165

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Roasted Malts

Amber Malt

Amber Malt
IOB
EBC
ASBC
90 - 130
100 - 140
50 - 70

This material has a light, biscuity dry flavour and can be used to produce some Bitter and Mild Ales and sweet Stouts in the UK, as well as the traditional London Porters that have come back into favour recently. The flavour is quite intense and caution in the use of this material is required.

The material is manufactured by roasting kilned malt - a Lager malt of good modification is best - progressively raising the temperature of the material from ambient to 150/160°C. Because there is no saccharification stage the non-enzymic browning reactions follow a different pattern, and the end products are nitrogen containing heterocycles of the pyrrole and pyrazine type, the pyrazines being mainly responsible for the bitterness.

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Chocolate Malt

Chocolate Malt
IOB
EBC
ASBC
900 -1100
1100 -1300
450 - 550

This product is used in the production of Porters and sweet Stouts. The flavour is sharp and somewhat acrid. A great deal of care is needed in the use of this material because of its intense colour and flavour. Manufacture is similar to Amber malt but higher final temperatures are used. Flavour again is due to pyrazines and pyrroles.

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Black Malt

Black Malt
IOB
EBC
ASBC
1100 min
1300 min
500 - 650

Black Malt, sometimes loosely described as Roasted Malt, is used in the production of very dark beers. The flavour, as might be expected, is a more intense version of Chocolate malt and because of its colour and flavour needs to be used with care.

Roasting is similar to Chocolate malt but higher final temperatures in the region of 200°C are used. Again because no saccharification stage is used the flavours are due to pyrazines and pyrroles.

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Roast Barley

Roast Barley
IOB
EBC
ASBC
1100 min
1300 min
500 - 600

This product is used in the production of dry or bitter Stouts and other dark beers, or for the careful adjustment of Pilsen beer colours.

A different, slower roasting temperature profile is used but the final temperature is 220°C or even higher, which is achieved by allowing the exothermic roasting reactions to continue after turning off the heat source. The reaction is stopped by quenching with water. Because of the high temperature at the end, colour pick-up at this stage is very rapid and extreme care is needed to prevent carbonisation.

Because the roasting process is slightly different from that used for Roast malt and a higher final temperature is used, the balance of pyrazines to pyrroles is different, with there being more pyrazines present in this product. This leads to a more bitter flavour and the use of the material in the so-called bitter Stouts. With extreme care it can also be used to colour and flavour Lager beers, but the quantities used are very small, certainly no more than 2 or 3 Kg in 1 tonne of grist.

 

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Colour Catalogue

 

   
TYPE

COLOUR RANGE
ASBC

MOISTURE GUIDE
%

     
Caramalt 15
13 - 17
7.5
Caramalt 33
30 - 37
6
     
Crystal 55
50 - 60
5
Crystal 65
60 - 70
5
Crystal 75
70 - 80
4.5
Crystal 100
95 - 115
4
Crystal 150
135 - 165
3.5
     
Amber Malt
50 - 70
3.5
Chocolate Malt
450 - 500
3
Black Malt
500 - 600
3
     
Roast Barley
500 - 600
3
     

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Company Details:-

The Registered office of Bairds Malt Limited is situated at Station Maltings, Witham, Essex, CM8 2DU. Registered in England. Company registration number 3580592.