Malt Analysis

Pale Ale Malt

Pale Ale malt forms the majority of the grist for a typical UK Pale Ale or Bitter beer and is made from some of the best spring and winter barley available. There is an emphasis on low protein barley to provide higher extract levels but still acceptable levels of enzymes. The barley will be fully-steeped and germinated before the green malt is loaded to the kiln. Kilning is a carefully controlled process removing moisture to a relatively low level without destroying excessive amounts of enzymes but imparting characteristic flavour and colour. Even with a diastase of only 40 IoB there is still enough activity to convert for example 5% of Crystal malt and 5 -10% of cooked adjunct (e.g. flaked maize).

Pale Ale Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.0% max 4.0% max 4.0% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 4.0 - 6.0 5.0 - 7.0 2.0 - 3.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.70% max 1.70% max 10.6 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 45.0 40.0 - 45.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 40 IoB min 140 WK min 45 °L min

Pale Ale Low Colour Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.5% max 4.5% max 4.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 3.0 - 4.0 3.5 - 4.5 1.5 - 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.70% max 1.70% max 10.6 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 45.0 40.0 - 45.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 40 IoB min 140 WK min 45 °L min

Maris Otter Pale Ale Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.0% max 4.0% max 4.0% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 4.0 - 6.0 5.0 - 7.0 2.0 - 3.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.55% max 1.55% max 9.7 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 45.0 40.0 - 45.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 40 IoB min 140 WK min 45 °L min

Maris Otter Blend Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.0% max 4.0% max 4.0% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 4.0 - 6.0 5.0 - 7.0 2.0 - 3.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.55% max 1.55% max 9.7 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 45.0 40.0 - 45.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 40 IoB min 140 WK min 45 °L min

Maris Otter Low Colour Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.5% max 4.5% max 4.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 3.0 – 4.0 3.5 – 4.5 1.5 - 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.55% max 1.55% max 9.7 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 45.0 40.0 - 45.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 40 IoB min 140 WK min 45 °L min

Scottish Ale Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.0% max 4.0% max 4.0% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 3.0 - 4.0 3.5 - 4.5 1.5 - 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.60% max 1.60% max 10.0 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 45.0 40.0 - 45.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 40 IoB min 140 WK min 45 °L min

Pilsen/Lager

Pilsen / Lager Malt is used for brewing all malt Premium Lagers. There is an emphasis on low protein and the relatively low soluble nitrogen ratio. This ensures good extract levels, no haze problems and low Dimethylsulfide (DMS) potential. Steeping and germination are carefully controlled to prevent excessive modification and to preserve head retention values in the beer. Kilning of the green malt is carefully programmed to prevent excessive colour formation yet sufficient heat is applied to ensure that DMS potential is limited.
Although mainly intended for all malt beers, there is sufficient diastatic power to convert a limited amount of adjunct. Care has to be taken that not too much adjunct is used or flavour could be impaired. Also, excessive dilution of soluble nitrogen could result in yeast nutrition problems, causing poor fermentation or flavour defects due to diacetyl, for example.     
 
Pilsen /Lager Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.5% max 4.5% max 4.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 306 Ldk min 81.0% min 81.0% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units)  2.0 - 3.0 3.0 - 4.0 1.0 - 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.70% max 1.70% max 10.6% max
SNR / KI / ST Ratio 35.0 - 40.0 38.0 - 42.0% 38.0 - 42.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 60 IoB min 215 WK min 65 °L min

Vienna Malt

Vienna Malt is used for making dark lager beer of the Vienna or Märzen style, dark in colour with a reddish tinge. Vienna malt usually only forms around 10 -15% of the grist with normal Lager malt and perhaps Caramalt.

The malt is a well-modified Lager malt, resulting from full steeping and germination. The colour is achieved by kilning at higher temperatures than usual for Lager malts. Because it only forms a part of the grist, diastatic activity is less important.

Typical Vienna Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 3.5% max 3.5% max 3.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 305Ldk min 80.5% min 80.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 6.0 - 8.0 8.0 - 10.0 3.0 - 4.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.70% max 1.70% max 11.0% max
SNR / KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 46.0 40.0 - 46.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 42 IoB min 145 WK min 50 °L min

Munich Malt

Munich malt is used in the production of dark Dunkel Lagers, which are dark in colour with a brownish tinge. Munich malt is only a part of the grist, along with pale Lager malt and perhaps Caramalt.

The malt is a well-modified Lager malt, which is kilned in such a way that modification continues during kilning and very high finishing heats are used to produce the characteristic colour and flavour.

Typical Munich Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 3.5% max 3.5% max 3.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 304Ldk min 80.0% min 80.0% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 7.0 - 10.0 10.0 - 15.0 4.0 - 6.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.70% max 1.70% max 11.0% max
SNR / KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 40.0 - 44.0 40.0 - 44.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 35 IoB min 120 WK min 40 °L

Dextrin Malt

Dextrin malt can be used to improve foam formation and stability whilst adding body, mouthfeel and palate fullness.

Dextrin Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 7.0% max 7.0% max 7.0% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 250Ldk min 70.0% min 70.0% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 2.5 – 4.0 3.0 – 4.5 1.5 – 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.75% max 1.75% max 11.0 % max

Distilling Malt (Pot Still)

Two-row spring malting barley with vigorous and even germination, is selected for the production of our Distilling malt. The barley nitrogen will not normally exceed 1.65% (10.3% protein).

Barley steeping regimes for distilling normally attain final moisture of 44% - 46% in green malt prior to germination, slightly higher than normally required for Pilsen lager style malts.

Germination temperatures are cool (12 - 14 ⁰C) over 4 - 5 days. This type of regime promotes high fermentability, adequate enzyme potential and soluble nitrogen (protein) levels.

A gentle distilling malt kiln cycle is crucial to limit the loss of heat sensitive enzyme systems built up during germination and to maximise fermentability. Kiln cycles will start at 50- 60 ⁰C rising to 70 - 75 ⁰C towards the end of the programme to attain the desired final moisture content.

Distilling Malt (Pot Still) specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.5% max 4.5% max 4.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 3.0 - 4.0 3.5 - 4.5 1.5 - 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.65% max 1.65% max 10.3 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 35.0 - 40.0 38.0 - 42.0 38.0 - 42.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 60 IoB min 215 WK min 65 °L min
       
Extract (0.7mm) as is 77.5% min - -
Fermentability 87.0% min - -
Fermentable Extract 67.5% min - -
Predicted Spirit Yield 410 L/tonne min - -
Glycosidic Nitrile (GN) 1.0 g/tonne max - -

Distilling Malt (High Enzyme)

High DP malt. To achieve the required level of enzyme activity the barley nitrogen will normally exceed 1.95% (12.0% protein) as the nitrogen component contains much of the latent protein enzyme in the form of beta-amlyase. Only varieties that are designated as non-producers of glycosidic nitrile (GN) are selected thus ensuring that ethyl carbamate (EC) levels in the final spirit are within current food safety limits.

Barley steeping regimes for grain distilling are selected to achieve high final cast moistures of 47% - 49% in green malt which will promote a high level of modification during germination. This is necessary to achieve the optimum level of enzyme activity for these malt types.

The green malt is lightly kilned to preserve the heat sensitive enzymes produced during germination. Kiln cycles will start at 50 - 55 ⁰C rising to 60 - 65 ⁰C towards the end of the programme.
  
Grain Distilling Malt (High DP) Specification:

Parameter IOB
Moisture 6.5% max
Diastatic Power, dry 155 IoB min
Alpha Amylase Activity, dry 65 DU min
Free Amino-nitrogen (FAN) 1040 175 mg/l min
Glycosidic Nitrile (GN) 0.2 g/tonne max

Peated Malt

Bairds Malt has taken steps to address the continuing demand for peated malt. The Inverness maltings has been re-established as a site for peated malt production following further investment in this process. The plant can manufacture peated malt in a range of intensities, including at the very high phenolic levels typically required by some Islay Distillers.

Peated malt is used by some malt distillers to impart a smoked or peaty flavour to their spirit. This type of malt may also occasionally be used as a very small inclusion in brewers' mashes to produce beer with a smoked character.

Peated malt is made using exactly the same production regimes and barley as (plain) distilling malt. The main difference is that peat smoke or 'reek' is introduced into the air drying the malt during kilning. The peat smoke is absorbed onto the surface of the drying malt which, when processed, imparts the smoked peaty flavour to the finished product.

Peated Malt specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 5.0% max 5.0% max 5.0% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 308Ldk min 81.5% min 81.5% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 3.0 - 4.0 3.5 - 4.5 1.5 - 2.0
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.65% max 1.65% max 10.3 % max
SNR /KI / ST Ratio 36.0 - 42.0 38.0 - 44.0 38.0 - 44.0
DP, IoB / WK / Lintner 60 IoB min 215 WK min 65 °L min
       
Extract (0.7mm) as is 77.5% min - -
Fermentability 86.5% min - -
Fermentable Extract 67.0% min - -
Predicted Spirit Yield 405 L/tonne min - -
Glycosidic Nitrile (GN) 1.0 g/tonne max - -
       
Total Phenols      
Lightly Peated 2 - 5 ppm - -
Medium Peated 8 - 15 ppm - -
Heavily Peated 25 - 50 ppm - -

Caramalt / Carastan / Crystal / Caramel Malts

Cara and crystal malts are manufactured by Bairds Malt at the Witham plant from green malt in small batches at a time (1.5 - 2 tonnes). The green malt is well modified but not over modified, and should be of a barley variety that does not lose its husk easily - it is essential to avoid localised charring on the surface of the grain.

The charge of green malt is fed into a rotating metal roasting cylinder, which is heated so that the temperature of the green malt is about 55 - 65°C. At this temperature each individual grain is 'mashed', i.e. amylolysis and proteolysis takes place within each individual grain, yielding a complex mixture of simple and polymeric sugars and amino acids and peptides. Water is then removed from the grain and the product temperature raised to 120° - 160°C. At this temperature the classic reactions of the non-enzymic browning process take place to form, firstly glycosylamines, and then ketosamines and eventually furan and pyran type heterocyclic oxygen compounds. By varying the time and temperature of the various stages a different colour range is produced.

Caramalts are used to give colour and flavour to pale Lager beers but should be used with care to avoid making the beer too dark or giving it too cloying a flavour. They also change the oxidation - reduction state of a beer, and can therefore improve the stability of a beer by preventing the formation of oxidised (cardboard) flavours.

Colour ranges for Caramalts currently available are:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Light Colour Range 10 - 30 15 - 35 13 - 17
Medium Colour Range 50 - 70 55 - 75 30 - 37
Dark Colour Range 70 - 100 80 - 110 50 - 60

Crystal or Caramel malts have a distinctive toffee flavour, which becomes more intense as colour is increased, and at the higher end of the colour range burnt or roasted malt flavours may begin to appear. Traditionally in the UK, Crystal malt of colour 70-80 °ASBC has been used at about 5% of the grist to give the characteristic colour and flavour of UK Bitters and Pale Ales.

Adjustment of the amount and/or colour of the Crystal malt may brew some very distinctive beers, but this may require some careful experimentation. Crystal malts have been used in the brewing of Lager beers but considerable care is required to ensure that whilst a distinctive flavour is achieved, the crystal flavour and colour does not become too dominant. In all beers they can help prevent the formation of oxidised (cardboard) flavours.

Colour ranges for Crystal Malts currently available are:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Light Colour Range 90 - 110 100 - 120 60 - 70
Medium Colour Range 130 - 150 140 - 160 70 - 80
Dark Colour Range 170 - 210 185 - 230 95 - 115
Very Dark Colour Range 250 - 320 270 - 350 135 - 165

Amber/ Brown Malt

These malts can be used to produce Bitter and Mild Ales and sweet Stouts in the UK, as well as the traditional London Porters that have come back into favour recently. Amber malt tends to impart light, biscuity, dry flavour and dark reddish to brown hues. Brown malt, having a slightly higher colour imparts a dry, mild coffee flavour and a darker amber hue. These flavours are quite intense and caution in the use of these malts is required.

These malts are manufactured by roasting kilned malt - a Lager malt of good modification is best - progressively raising the temperature of the material from ambient to 150/160°C.

The browning reactions in the production of these products are non-enzymic because there is no saccharification stage and therefore the end products are nitrogen containing heterocycles of the pyrrole and pyrazine type, the pyrazines being mainly responsible for the bitterness.

Amber Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.5% max 4.5% max 4.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 275Ldk min 77.0% min 77.0% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 80 - 100 85 - 105 45 - 60
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.75% max 1.75% max 11.0 % max

Brown Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Moisture 4.5% max 4.5% max 4.5% max
Extract (0.7/0.2mm), dry 275Ldk min 77.0% min 77.0% min
Colour (EBC/SRM Units) 100 - 120 110 - 130 50 - 70
Total Nitrogen / Protein, dry 1.75% max 1.75% max 11.0 % max

Chocolate Malt

Chocolate malt is used in the production of Porters and sweet Stouts. Chocolate malt has a rich chocolate and coffee flavour and aroma with a light astringency. A great deal of care is needed in the use of this material because of its intense colour and flavour. Manufacture is similar to Amber malt but higher final temperatures are used. Flavour again is due to pyrazines and pyrroles. 

Chocolate Malt Specifications:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Pale Chocolate Colour Range 450 – 550 500 – 600 280 – 340
Chocolate Colour Range 800 - 1000 900 - 1100 450 - 550

Black Malt

Black Malt, sometimes loosely described as Roasted Malt, is used in the production of very dark beers. The flavour, as might be expected, is a more intense version of Chocolate malt and, because of its colour and flavour, needs to be used with care.

Roasting is similar to Chocolate malt but higher final temperatures in the region of 200°C are used. Again, because no saccharification stage is used, the flavours are due to pyrazines and pyrroles. 

Black Malt Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Black Malt Colour Range  1100 - 1400 1200 - 1500 550 - 650

Roasted Barley

Roasted Barley is used in the production of dry or bitter Stouts and other dark beers, or for the careful adjustment of Pilsen beer colours.

A different, slower roasting temperature profile is used but the final temperature is 220°C or even higher, which is achieved by allowing the exothermic roasting reactions to continue after turning off the heat source. The reaction is stopped by quenching with water. Because of the high temperature at the end, colour pick-up at this stage is very rapid and extreme care is needed to prevent carbonisation.

Because the roasting process is slightly different from that used for Roast malt and a higher final temperature is used, the balance of pyrazines to pyrroles is different, with there being more pyrazines present in this product. This leads to a more bitter flavour and the use of the material in the so-called bitter Stouts. With extreme care it can also be used to colour and flavour Lager beers, but the quantities used are very small, certainly no more than 2 or 3 Kg in 1 tonne of grist.

Roasted Barley Specification:

Parameter IOB EBC ASBC
Roasted Barley Colour Range    1100 - 1400 1200 - 1500 550 - 650

Colour Catalogue

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Caramalt

Cara 15

Light

10 - 30

15 - 35

13 - 17

Cara 35

Medium

50 - 70

55 - 75

30 - 37

Cara 55

Dark

70 - 100

80 - 110

50 - 60

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Crystal

Crystal 65

Light

90 - 110

100 - 120

60 - 70

Crystal 75

Medium

130 - 150

140 - 160

70 - 80

Crystal 100

Dark

170 - 210

185 - 230

95 - 115

Crystal 150

V Dark

250 - 320

270 - 350

135 - 165

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Amber

 

 

80 - 100

85 - 105

45 - 60

Brown     100 – 120 110 – 130 50 – 70


Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Chocolate

 

 

800 - 1000

900 - 1100

450 - 550

Pale Chocolate     450 – 550 500 – 600 280 – 340


Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Black

 

 

1100 - 1400

1200 - 1500

550 - 650

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Roasted Barley

 

 

1100 - 1400

1200 - 1500

550 - 650

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Pilsen / Lager

 

 

2.0 - 3.0

3.0 - 4.0

1.0 - 2.0

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Pale Ale

 

 

4.0 - 6.0

5.0 - 7.0

2.0 - 3.0

Pale Ale Low Colour 3.0 – 4.0 3.5 – 4.5 1.5 – 2.0
Maris Otter Pale Ale 4.0 – 6.0 5.0 – 7.0 2.0 – 3.0
Maris Otter Blend Malt 4.0 – 6.0 5.0 – 7.0 2.0 – 3.0
Maris Otter Low Colour 3.0 – 4.0 3.5 – 4.5 1.5 – 2.0
Scottish Ale Malt 3.0 – 4.0 3.5 – 4.5 1.5 – 2.0


Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Vienna

 

 

6.0 - 8.0

8.0 - 10.0

3.0 - 4.0

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Munich

 

 

7.0 - 10.0

10.0 - 15.0

4.0 – 6.0

 

 

Product

Type

Description

IOB

EBC

ASBC

Dextrin

 

 

2.5 - 4.0

3.0 - 4.5

1.5 - 2.0



The Malt Analysis Parameters we use are:


Related Pages

Malt Grain 1